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Richard quarrelled with Leopold of Austria over the deposition of Isaac Komnenos related to Leopold's Byzantine mother and his position within the crusade.
Leopold's banner had been raised alongside the English and French standards. This was interpreted as arrogance by both Richard and Philip, as Leopold was a vassal of the Holy Roman Emperor although he was the highest-ranking surviving leader of the imperial forces.
Richard's men tore the flag down and threw it in the moat of Acre. Philip also left soon afterwards, in poor health and after further disputes with Richard over the status of Cyprus Philip demanded half the island and the kingship of Jerusalem.
Richard had kept 2, Muslim prisoners as hostages against Saladin fulfilling all the terms of the surrender of the lands around Acre. Richard feared his forces being bottled up in Acre as he believed his campaign could not advance with the prisoners in train.
He, therefore, ordered all the prisoners executed. Saladin attempted to harass Richard's army into breaking its formation in order to defeat it in detail.
Richard maintained his army's defensive formation, however, until the Hospitallers broke ranks to charge the right wing of Saladin's forces.
Richard then ordered a general counterattack, which won the battle. Arsuf was an important victory. The Muslim army was not destroyed, despite the considerable casualties it suffered, but it did rout; this was considered shameful by the Muslims and boosted the morale of the Crusaders.
In November , following the fall of Jaffa , the Crusader army advanced inland towards Jerusalem.
The army then marched to Beit Nuba, only 12 miles from Jerusalem. Muslim morale in Jerusalem was so low that the arrival of the Crusaders would probably have caused the city to fall quickly.
However, the weather was appallingly bad, cold with heavy rain and hailstorms; this, combined with the fear that the Crusader army, if it besieged Jerusalem, might be trapped by a relieving force, led to the decision to retreat back to the coast.
In the first half of , he and his troops refortified Ascalon. Only days later, on 28 April , Conrad was stabbed to death by Assassins  before he could be crowned.
Eight days later Richard's own nephew Henry II of Champagne was married to the widowed Isabella, although she was carrying Conrad's child.
The murder has never been conclusively solved, and Richard's contemporaries widely suspected his involvement.
The crusader army made another advance on Jerusalem, and in June it came within sight of the city before being forced to retreat once again, this time because of dissension amongst its leaders.
In particular, Richard and the majority of the army council wanted to force Saladin to relinquish Jerusalem by attacking the basis of his power through an invasion of Egypt.
This split the Crusader army into two factions, and neither was strong enough to achieve its objective. Richard stated that he would accompany any attack on Jerusalem but only as a simple soldier; he refused to lead the army.
Without a united command the army had little choice but to retreat back to the coast. There commenced a period of minor skirmishes with Saladin's forces, punctuated by another defeat in the field for the Ayyubid army at the Battle of Jaffa.
Baha' al-Din, a contemporary Muslim soldier and biographer of Saladin, recorded a tribute to Richard's martial prowess at this battle: "I have been assured The Sultan was wroth thereat and left the battlefield in anger Richard knew that both Philip and his own brother John were starting to plot against him, and the morale of Saladin's army had been badly eroded by repeated defeats.
However, Saladin insisted on the razing of Ascalon's fortifications, which Richard's men had rebuilt, and a few other points. Richard made one last attempt to strengthen his bargaining position by attempting to invade Egypt —Saladin's chief supply-base—but failed.
In the end, time ran out for Richard. He realised that his return could be postponed no longer since both Philip and John were taking advantage of his absence.
He and Saladin finally came to a settlement on 2 September The terms provided for the destruction of Ascalon's fortifications, allowed Christian pilgrims and merchants access to Jerusalem, and initiated a three-year truce.
Disguised as a Knight Templar , Richard sailed from Corfu with four attendants, but his ship was wrecked near Aquileia , forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe.
On his way to the territory of his brother-in-law Henry the Lion , Richard was captured shortly before Christmas near Vienna by Leopold of Austria, who accused Richard of arranging the murder of his cousin Conrad of Montferrat.
Moreover, Richard had personally offended Leopold by casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. While in prison, Richard wrote Ja nus hons pris or Ja nuls om pres "No man who is imprisoned" , which is addressed to his half-sister Marie.
He wrote the song, in French and Occitan versions, to express his feelings of abandonment by his people and his sister.
The detention of a crusader was contrary to public law,   and on these grounds Pope Celestine III excommunicated Duke Leopold.
Richard famously refused to show deference to the Emperor and declared to him, " I am born of a rank which recognises no superior but God ".
The Emperor demanded that , marks , pounds of silver be delivered to him before he would release the King, the same amount raised by the Saladin tithe only a few years earlier,  and 2—3 times the annual income for the English Crown under Richard.
Richard's mother, Eleanor, worked to raise the ransom. Both clergy and laymen were taxed for a quarter of the value of their property, the gold and silver treasures of the churches were confiscated, and money was raised from the scutage and the carucage taxes.
Henry turned down the offer. The money to rescue the King was transferred to Germany by the Emperor's ambassadors, but "at the king's peril" had it been lost along the way, Richard would have been held responsible , and finally, on 4 February Richard was released.
Philip sent a message to John: "Look to yourself; the devil is loose". In Richard's absence, his brother John revolted with the aid of Philip; amongst Philip's conquests in the period of Richard's imprisonment was Normandy.
At Winchester, on 11 March , Richard was crowned a second time to nullify the shame of his captivity. Richard began his reconquest of Normandy.
The search began for a fresh site for a new castle to defend the duchy of Normandy and act as a base from which Richard could launch his campaign to take back the Vexin from French control.
Walter de Coutances , Archbishop of Rouen , was reluctant to sell the manor as it was one of the diocese's most profitable, and other lands belonging to the diocese had recently been damaged by war.
The interdict was still in force when work began on the castle, but Pope Celestine III repealed it in April after Richard made gifts of land to the archbishop and the diocese of Rouen, including two manors and the prosperous port of Dieppe.
Royal expenditure on castles declined from the levels spent under Henry II, attributed to a concentration of resources on Richard's war with the king of France.
While some of his advisers thought the rain was an evil omen, Richard was undeterred. He was no mere copyist of the models he had seen in the East, but introduced many original details of his own invention into the stronghold".
Determined to resist Philip's designs on contested Angevin lands such as the Vexin and Berry, Richard poured all his military expertise and vast resources into the war on the French King.
Most importantly, he managed to secure the Welf inheritance in Saxony for his nephew, Henry the Lion's son, who was elected Otto IV of Germany in Partly as a result of these and other intrigues, Richard won several victories over Philip.
At the Battle of Gisors sometimes called Courcelles in , Richard took Dieu et mon Droit —"God and my Right"—as his motto still used by the British monarchy today , echoing his earlier boast to Emperor Henry that his rank acknowledged no superior but God.
Although it was Lent , he "devastated the Viscount's land with fire and sword". Some chroniclers claimed that this was because a local peasant had uncovered a treasure trove of Roman gold.
On 26 March , Richard was hit in the shoulder by a crossbow, and the wound turned gangrenous. He said Richard had killed his father and two brothers, and that he had killed Richard in revenge.
He expected to be executed, but as a final act of mercy Richard forgave him, saying "Live on, and by my bounty behold the light of day", before he ordered the boy to be freed and sent away with shillings.
Richard then set his affairs in order, bequeathing all his territory to his brother John and his jewels to his nephew Otto.
Richard died on 6 April in the arms of his mother, and thus "ended his earthly day. Henry Sandford , Bishop of Rochester — , announced that he had seen a vision of Richard ascending to Heaven in March along with Stephen Langton , the former Archbishop of Canterbury , the King having presumably spent 33 years in purgatory as expiation for his sins.
Richard produced no legitimate heirs and acknowledged only one illegitimate son, Philip of Cognac.
As a result, he was succeeded by his brother John as king. Contemporaries considered Richard as both a king and a knight famed for personal martial prowess; this was, apparently, the first such instance of this combination.
At the same time, he was considered prone to the sins of lust, pride, greed, and above all excessive cruelty. Ralph of Coggeshall , summarising Richard's career, deplores that the King was one of "the immense cohort of sinners".
The first one is a sirventes in Old French , Dalfin je us voill desrenier , and the second one is a lament that he wrote during his imprisonment at Dürnstein Castle , Ja nus hons pris , with a version in Old Occitan and a version in Old French.
In the historiography of the second half of the 20th century, much interest was shown in Richard's sexuality, in particular whether there was evidence of homosexuality.
The topic had not been raised by Victorian or Edwardian historians, a fact which was itself denounced as a "conspiracy of silence" by John Harvey The second Great Seal of Richard I shows him bearing a shield depicting three lions passant-guardant.
This is the first instance of the appearance of this blazon , which later became established as the Royal Arms of England.
It is likely, therefore, that Richard introduced this heraldic design. Richard is also credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant now statant-guardant.
Around the middle of the 13th century, various legends developed that, after Richard's capture, his minstrel Blondel travelled Europe from castle to castle, loudly singing a song known only to the two of them they had composed it together.
It also does not correspond to the historical reality, since the King's jailers did not hide the fact; on the contrary, they publicised it.
At some time around the 16th century, tales of Robin Hood started to mention him as a contemporary and supporter of King Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry, during the misrule of Richard's evil brother John, while Richard was away at the Third Crusade.
Richard's reputation over the years has "fluctuated wildly", according to historian John Gillingham. Richard left an indelible imprint on the imagination extending to the present, in large part because of his military exploits, and his popular image tended to be dominated by the positive qualities of chivalry and military competence.
Meanwhile, Muslim writers  during the Crusades period and after wrote of him: "Never have we had to face a bolder or more subtle opponent".
Victorian England was divided on Richard: many admired him as a crusader and man of God, erecting an heroic statue to him outside the Houses of Parliament.
The late-Victorian scholar William Stubbs , on the other hand, thought him "a bad son, a bad husband, a selfish ruler, and a vicious man".
During his ten years' reign, he was in England for no more than six months, and was totally absent for the last five years.
He was a bad king: his great exploits, his military skill, his splendour and extravagance, his poetical tastes, his adventurous spirit, do not serve to cloak his entire want of sympathy, or even consideration, for his people.
He was no Englishman, but it does not follow that he gave to Normandy, Anjou, or Aquitaine the love or care that he denied to his kingdom.
His ambition was that of a mere warrior: he would fight for anything whatever, but he would sell everything that was worth fighting for.
The glory that he sought was that of victory rather than conquest. In World War I , when British troops commanded by General Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem, the British press printed cartoons of Richard looking down from the heavens with the caption reading, "At last my dream has come true".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. King of England. Effigy c. Eleanor of Aquitaine William de Longchamp. Fontevraud Abbey , Anjou, France.
Berengaria of Navarre m. Main article: Revolt of — Tomb containing the heart of King Richard at Rouen Cathedral.
Further information: Royal Arms of England. Main article: Matter of England. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Richard I of England 8. Fulk V of Anjou 4. Geoffrey V of Anjou 9.
Ermengarde of Maine 2. Henry II of England Henry I of England 5. Empress Matilda Matilda of Scotland 1.
Richard I of England William IX of Aquitaine 6. William X of Aquitaine Philippa of Toulouse 3. Eleanor of Aquitaine Dangereuse of l'Isle Bouchard.
London: Routledge: Taylor and Francis. Retrieved 18 January III, cap. Although Richard the Lionheart scored a surprising and masterful victory at Arsuf, he was unable to press his advantage.
Saladin had decided to destroy Ascalon, a logical fortification for Richard to capture. Taking and rebuilding Ascalon in order to more securely establish a supply line made good strategic sense, but few of his followers were interested in anything but moving on to Jerusalem.
And fewer still were willing to stay on once, theroretically, Jerusalem was captured. Matters were complicated by quarrels among the various contingents and Richard's own high-handed style of diplomacy.
After considerable political wrangling, Richard came to the unavoidable conclusion that the conquest of Jerusalem would be far too difficult with the lack of military strategy he'd encountered from his allies; furthermore, it would be virtually impossible to keep the Holy City should by some miracle he manage to take it.
The tension had grown so bad between the kings of England and France that Richard chose to go home by way of the Adriatic Sea in order to avoid Philip's territory.
Once again the weather played a part: a storm swept Richard's ship ashore near Venice. Although he disguised himself to avoid the notice of Duke Leopold of Austria, with whom he had clashed after his victory at Acre, he was discovered in Vienna and imprisoned in the Duke's castle at Dürnstein, on the Danube.
Henry kept Richard at various imperial castles as events unfolded and he gauged his next step. Legend has it that a minstrel called Blondel went from castle to castle in Germany seeking Richard, singing a song he had composed with the king.
When Richard heard the song from within his prison walls, he sang a verse known only to himself and Blondel, and the minstrel knew he had found the Lionheart.
However, the story is just a story. Henry had no reason to hide Richard's whereabouts; in fact, it suited his purposes to let everyone know that he had captured one of the most powerful men in Christendom.
The story cannot be traced back any earlier than the 13th century, and Blondel probably never even existed, although it made for good press for minstrels of the day.
Henry threatened to turn Richard the Lionheart over to Philip unless he paid , marks and surrendered his kingdom, which he would receive back from the emperor as a fief.
Richard agreed, and one of the most remarkable fund-raising efforts began. The people of England were heavily taxed, Churches were forced to give up valuables, monasteries were made to turn over a season's wool harvest.
In less than a year nearly all of the exhorbitant ransom had been raised. Richard was released in February, , and hurried back to England, where he was crowned again to demonstrate that he was still in charge of an independent kingdom.
Almost immediately after his coronation, Richard the Lionheart left England for what would be the last time.
He headed directly to France to engage in warfare with Philip, who had captured some of Richard's lands.
These skirmishes, which were occasionally interrupted by truces, lasted for the next five years.
By March of , Richard was involved in a siege of the castle at Chalus-Chabrol, which belonged to the Viscount of Limoges.
There was some rumor of a treasure having been found on his lands, and Richard was reputed to have demanded the treasure be turned over to him; when it was not, he supposedly attacked.
However, this is little more than a rumor; it was enough that the viscount had allied with Philip for Richard to move against him. On the evening of March 26, Richard was shot in the arm by a crossbow bolt while observing the progress of the siege.
Although the bolt was removed and the wound was treated, infection set in, and Richard fell ill.
He kept to his tent and limited visitors to keep the news from getting out, but he knew what was happening. Richard the Lionheart died on April 6, Richard was buried according to his instructions.
Crowned and clothed in royal regalia, his body was entombed at Fontevraud, at the feet of his father; his heart was buried at Rouen, with his brother Henry; and his brain and entrails went to an abbey at Charroux, on the border of Poitous and Limousin.
Even before he was laid to rest, rumors and legends sprang up that would follow Richard the Lionheart into history.
Over the centuries, the view of Richard the Lionheart held by historians has undergone some notable changes. Once considered one of England's greatest kings by virtue of his deeds in the Holy Land and his chivalrous reputation, in recent years Richard has been criticized for his absence from his kingdom and his incessant engagement in warfare.
This change is more a reflection of modern sensibilities than it is of any new evidence uncovered about the man. Richard spent little time in England, it is true; but his English subjects admired his efforts in the east and his warrior ethic.
He didn't speak much, if any, English; but then, neither had any monarch of England since the Norman Conquest. It's also important to remember that Richard was more than the king of England; he had lands in France and political interests elsewhere in Europe.
His actions reflected these diverse interests, and, though he didn't always succeed, he usually attempted to do what was best for all his concerns, not just England.
He did what he could to leave the country in good hands, and while things sometimes went awry, for the most part, England flourished during his reign.
There remain some things we don't know about Richard the Lionheart, beginning with what he really looked like. The popular description of him as elegantly built, with long, supple, straight limbs and hair a color between red and gold, was first written nearly twenty years after Richard's death, when the late king had already been lionized.
The only contemporary description that exists indicates that he was taller than average. Because he displayed such prowess with the sword, he could have been muscular, but by the time of his death he may have put on weight, since the removal of the crossbow bolt was reportedly complicated by fat.
But the recapture of the city, which constituted the chief aim of the Third Crusade, eluded him. There were fierce quarrels among the French, German, and English contingents.
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